Sun, water and fire hronometricheskie devices have completed the first phase in the development of instruments for measuring time. Gradually produce a more precise picture of the time, and have sought better ways to measure it. Revolutionary invention marked a completely new stages of development in this direction was the creation of the first wheeled clock, which began with the emergence of the modern era of timekeeping.
The author and the date the invention of mechanical watches is unknown. Some reports suggest the tenth century that it was time for the first time such a mechanism built monk from Herbert Orillaka, the future Pope Sylvester II (950 – 1003). Indeed, in the technique, it was a great talent, and it had the opportunity during his study tour to get acquainted with the principles of construction of various Arab astronomical
instruments and water clock. Yet the withdrawal of the establishment of Herbert mechanical clock does not have sufficient grounds, and why.
First, the Arabs were very skilled in the manufacture of water-clock and watch Herbert also could be water. In fact, contained in documents the term «horologiya» (horologium) then treated to all sorts of devices for measuring time. Secondly, there was no further mention of the achievement of Herbert, or that his idea of someone developed during his lifetime or after it. By the way, namely Herbert introduced in Europe «Arab» figures.
Most historians see a continuity: it is, and in fact, mechanical watches are the result of complication of the mechanical part of the water, which has already been used a dial, wheel transmission mechanism for the battle, puppets, play different scenes … The difference was in force: in one case – a jet of water in another – a heavy weight. Lacking only the mechanical trigger device and control progress. Author spindle descent ( «lodge»), which at certain intervals to interrupt the movement of clock mechanism, is unknown.
Usually, historians refer to the arrangement, the drawing of which is shown in an album of French architect Villard de sinecure, as the first mentioned trigger device for the regulation of the watch: he has described (in about 1250) gross device that allowed an angel figurines are always on hand to show the sun. This mechanism, as many believe, was invented by Willard, most likely, he met with him and copy him during his travels. Besides drawing on the album Willard mechanism did not like spindle descent.
As can be seen from the sketch of this device, here as a driving force applied weight, suspended at the end of the rope, coiled around the axis of the wheel. The drop in weight and relatively uniform rotation of the vertical rod on which to stand the figure of an angel strengthened, regulated fluctuation wheel back and forth. The period of oscillations due to many factors, including the moment of inertia, friction in the bearings, the forces acting on the rope.
On the other, somewhat later, information on mechanical movement, meet at the «Divine Comedy» ( «Paradise», song X) Dante Alighieri (1265-1321):
And as a clock, where a familiar battle
Bride of Christ call us to God’s house,
Clock where well designed course,
With the sound «ding-ding» sounds like the strings on the Lira.
The song XXI «Paradise» read:
And as the clock wheels with their apparatus
So move that slightly creeping one,
Others are flying before the eyes …
But in these verses we can talk about complex water clock, rather than mechanical. Therefore, we hope to leave the definition of the author and the exact date, we have to state only one thing: someone unknown and an unknown time – probably at the end of the XIII century, invented the spindle and the progress made possible the emergence of mechanical watches. And this move was then to hand over five and a half centuries. Most same earliest date that can be reliably described, referring to the use of spindle motor hours, applies to about 1340 or later (up to several years). Since then, they quickly entered common usage and became the pride of cities and cathedrals. In 1450 there were wind-up clock, but by the end of XV century – a portable clock, but it is still too large to be called a pocket or wrist.